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货币战争(二):美元如何击败英镑的?

2013-11-12 13:24:49 LAIYUAN: ZHIHUANGJINWANG YUEDUCISHU:2453

  继续我们货币战争的报道。昨天我们给大家讲述了英镑取代黄金的历程,也确定了金本位的货币制度,但日不落帝国国势渐衰,再加上一次次金融危机和战争的冲击,英镑的国际地位日益低落,谁会取代英镑成为新的世界货币?这一个答案随着二战的进行而揭晓。

  美元代替英镑的霸主地位,走上历史舞台

  20世纪20年代初期,当欧洲还没有从两次世界大战的伤痛中恢复过来的时候,美国的各大城市却正在繁荣发展着,美国人花钱消费,他们参加舞会,购买汽车、收藏私酿烈酒,炒作股票,享受着美利坚合众国成立以来最鼎盛的繁华。

  中国人民银行研究生部博士生导师吴念鲁:“二次大战以后,美国基本上是一个获利的国家,应该说发了战争财,不但是他本土没有打,而且他可以提供军火或者提供其他物资,从此也赚了很多钱。”

  世界大战彻底改变了世界经济和格局,德国、意大利、日本遭到毁灭性打击,英国、法国这些工业国也满目疮痍,相比之下,美国却因战争受益,成为当时全球经济实力最强大的国家。

  丁一凡:“美国的国内生产总值占全球当时生产总值的48%左右,就差不多一半左右都是美国的制造,然后贸易量占了大概全球贸易的三分之一,所以非常非常强大,就绝对的一枝独秀。”

  1859年至1918年,美国工业总产值从不到20亿美元上升到840美元,黄金储备从占全球储备总量的17%上升到59%,贸易量则从4%上升到39.2%,随着贸易量的大幅增加,美元取代英镑,成了当时使用量最大的国际货币,在那一时期,手握美元是一件时髦而且实惠的事,美国民众享受着因此而来的奢华生活,总统罗斯福和财政大臣们,也正在为一项更强大的振兴计划精心筹划着。

  独立经济学家向松祚:“那么罗斯福当时开始就勾画二战结束之后,整个国际货币体系会是怎么样。”

  吴念鲁:“罗斯福的新政,当时,一个是美国本身他经济的实力已经到了这种程度了,他想作为一个经济大国,经济强国,资本大国资本强国,作为世界的一个所谓霸主,金融帝国,他本身有这个想法有这个愿望。”

  美国试图凭借强大的势力一举取代英国充当世界霸主,而英国并未打算拱手相让,虽然战争削弱了英国的经济实力,但是当时,国际贸易有40%左右还是用英镑结算,伦敦仍然是全球重要的金融中心,在美元提出要成为世界货币的时候,唯一与之抗衡的是英镑。

  向松祚:“为了争夺在战后国际货币体系的主导地位,英国和美国他们之间是有很,很深刻的矛盾,两个国家的政治家,两个国家的学者都在刻意的,就是为了提升自己的金融的地位,提升自己货币的地位而努力,而且他们设计的各种方案也都是为了达到这个目标的。”

  英美双方拿出的方案针锋相对,英国方案的起草者是英国经济学家凯恩斯,他提议要创建世界银行,发行一种超主权的货币,这一理论使他成为经济史上最杰出的经济学家,但是在当时,凯恩斯的主张遭遇到了美国的强烈反对,美国经济学家怀特提议,应该把美元确立为主要的世界货币。

  丁一凡:“凯恩斯提出这么一个方案,我们事后分析,当然也有保卫英国利益的企图,因为他已经看到英国再想维持当年英镑的这种霸权地位是不可能了,而且英国,因为打仗,因为黄金不断的外流,他的黄金储备已经不足以支撑一个很大的货币的这种情况下,所以他先发制人的提出来一个说,那我们做一个统一的货币吧。”

  向松祚:“但是凯恩斯这个方案拿到罗斯福这里来的时候,罗斯福一口否决了,罗斯福认为,世界货币的方案并不符合我们美元的利益,不符合美国的利益,所以他把凯恩斯的方案就否定了。”

  美国总统罗斯福开始在各种场合,宣讲怀特方案对促进世界贸易的好处。

  富兰克林?罗斯福:“这个伟大的国家将要担当一个更加重要的角色,他如此夺目,他会继续复兴、继续繁荣。”

  罗斯福以充满自信的声音向世界各国,传递着一种霸气和力量,1944年,美国挑头在新罕布尔什州的布雷顿森林召开会议,商讨如何重建战后国际货币体系。争论的双方仍然是美国和英国。

  吴念鲁:“美国当时他处在这么一个强势,他想作为世界的一个所谓霸主,英国,他作为老牌帝国主义,他不愿意一下子就放弃自己的,他既得利益和权益。”

  经过激烈的讨价还价,最终在美国政府的主导下,与会各国选择了怀特方案,美元取代英镑成为国际货币体系的核心,美元和黄金挂钩,一盎司黄金等于35美元,其他的货币再与美元形成固定的汇率。至此,美元初步确立了在国际货币体系中的霸主地位。


  独立经济学家向松祚告诉记者,整个国力最强盛的时候,所以美元又成为了全球最重要的货币,从它的崛起到它的衰落,就说明了一个道理,就是一个国家的综合国力起来以后,它的货币一定会是一个伟大的货币。

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  1974NIANDEQIUTIAN,WEIJIZHONGDEMEIGUOJINGJIYAOYAOYUZHUI,SHUYIBAIWANJIDESHIYEZHE,ZAIHANFENGZHONGPAIDUILINGQUJIUZHUDEMIANBAO,TAMENDEGUOWUQINGJIXINGE,CISHIZHENGZAISHATECHUFANG,XUNZHAOZHONGZHENMEIGUODEJIHUI,JIXINGEHESHATEWANGZIDENEICIHUITAN,HOULAIBEIZHENGMINGSHIWANJIULEDANGSHIJIJIKEWEIDEMEIYUANBAQUAN。

中国证券网  ZHANGMING:“DANGSHIMEIYUANMIANLINHENDADEBIANZHIDEYALISHI,MEIGUOHESHATEDACHENGLEZHEIYANGYIGEJIAOYI,JIUSHUOSHATEDANGSHISHISHIJIEZUIDADECHANYOUGUO,SHATEHEQITADETONGMENGGUOYIXIETONGYI,JIANGMEIYUANZUOWEIWEIYIDEYIZHONGSHIYOUJIAOYIDEJIJIAHUOBI,CONGERNENGGOUTISHENGMEIYUANDEDIWEI,MEIGUOCHENGNUOSHENMENI?MEIGUOCHENGNUODUIZHEIXIEGUOJIATIGONGANQUANBAOHU。”

中国证券网  DINGYIFAN:“SHIYOUSHIQUANQIUQIHUOSHICHANGSHANGJIAOYILIANGZUIDADEYIZHONGSHANGPIN,SUOYI,ERZHEIGEZUIDADESHANGPINZHIYONGMEIYUANJIAOYI,SUOYIJUEDINGGEGEGUOJIA,YAOJINKOUZHEIGEDONGXI,NIJIUYAOCHUBEIMEIYUAN,YINWEINIZHIYOUYOUMEIYUANNICAINENGGOUMAIZHEIGEDONGXI,SUOYIYINCI,MEIYUANDEXUQIULIANGYIXIAZIJIUBIANDEFEICHANGFEICHANGDA,RANHOUZHEIYANGJIUMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGDIANDINGLEMEIYUANDEBAQUANDIWEI。”

中国证券网  JIXINGEDECELVE,JIELEMEIGUODERANMEIZHIJI,DANSHIMEIYUANZHENZHENGZHONGXINZOUSHANGQIANGSHENGZHILU,QUESHIZAISHIJINIANHOUDE20SHIJI90NIANDAI。

  ZHANGMING:“ZHICHENGMEIYUANZHONGXINZOUQIANGDEGENBENSHIMEIGUODELAODONGSHENGCHANLVZAI1990NIANDAIYOUYIGETUFEIMENGJINDESHANGSHENG,NEIMEZHEIZHUYAOGUIGONGYUWOMENITJISHUDEFANRONG。”

  1990NIANYILAI,MEIGUODEITCHANYEDEYIXUNMENGFAZHAN,JISHULILIANGYUANYUANCHAOGUODANGSHIDEOUZHOUHERIBEN,LAODONGSHENGCHANLVYEJINRULETUFEIMENGJINDESHANGSHENGQI。

中国证券网  ZHANGMING:“ZAINEIGEJIEDUAN,KELINDUNZHENGFUZAIRUOGANJIEMEIGUOZHENGFULIMIANSUANYIGEYILEI,TADANGSHI,TAYEKONGZHIMEIGUOZHENGFUDECAIZHENGCHIZI,SUOYIZAI,BIRUSHUOZAI1997NIANZAI1998NIANJIAN,MEIGUOPOTIANHUANGDESHIXIANYINIANDECAIZHENGYINGYU,YINWEICAIZHENGCHIZIDESUOXIAOYESHITUIDONGMEIYUANZOUQIANGDEYIGEZHONGYAOYINSU,SUOYISHUOZHEIJIFANGMIANDEYINSU,GONGTONGCUCHENGLEMEIYUANZAI1990NIANDAIZHONGHOUQISHENZHIZAI2000NIANZHEIGENIANDAIYIGEQIANBANQIDEYIGEZOUQIANG。”

  1991ZHI2001NIANDESHINIANJIAN,MEIGUOJINRULELISHISHANGZUIZHANGDEJINGJIKUOZHANGQI,NIANJUNZENGZHANGLVWEI3.4%,YUANGAOYURIBENDE1.1%HEOUMENGDE2.0%,TONGZHANGLVJIANGDIZHI3%YIXIA,SHIXIANLEDITONGZHANGXIADEWENDINGZENGZHANG。1991NIANQI,MEIGUOZHONGXINDUOHUISHIJIESHANGPINDIYIDACHUKOUGUODEJIAOYI,DAO2001NIAN,MEIGUOgdpZHANSHIJIEDEBIZHONGZENGJIAZHI32.5%,ZHONGXINHUIDAOQUANQIUJINGJIQIANGGUODEBAZHUDIWEI。

  XIANGSONGZUO:“ZHENGGEGUOLIZUIQIANGSHENGDESHIHOU,SUOYIMEIYUANYOUCHENGWEILEQUANQIUZUIZHONGYAODEHUOBI,CONGTADEJUEQIDAOTADESHUAILUO,JIUSHUOMINGLEYIGEDAOLI,JIUSHIYIGEGUOJIADEZONGHEGUOLIQILAIYIHOU,TADEHUOBIYIDINGHUISHIYIGEWEIDADEHUOBI。”

  BUGUO,MEIYUANDEZHEIBATOUHAOJIAOYIZUODEBINGBUANWEN,SUIZHEMEIGUOJINGJIDEZHONGXINZOUQIANG,OUMENGGEGUODEJINGJIYEDEDAOLEXUNMENGFAZHAN,OUYUANCONGWUDAOYOU,XUNSUCHENGZHANGQILAI,ZAI1999NIANQIDONGSHURI,DUIMEIYUANHUILVJIUSHANGSHENGZHI1OUYUANHE1.18YUANDEGAOWEI,DAO2004NIAN,CHUANGXIA1OUYUANHE1.36MEIYUANDEXINGAO,2006NIAN,OUYUANDUIMEIYUANHUILVWENZHONGYOUSHENG,ZAIGUOJIWUTAISHANGXUNSUZHANJULEDIERDAHUOBIDEDIWEI,CHENGWEIMEIYUANZUIQIANGYOULIDEJINGZHENGDUISHOU。

  WUNIANLURENWEI,ZONGDEQUSHIMEIGUOBUKENENGYONGYUANZUOWEISHIJIEHUOBIBAQUANDIWEI,NEIMECHIZAOZHEIGEYAOBEISUOWEIWOMENJIAODUOYUANHUAHUOBISUOQUDAI,HUOZHEFEIZHUQUANGUODEHUOBISUOQUDAI。

中国证券网  WUNIANLU:“OUMENGNIKANSANYIDUORENKOU,TADEMAOYITADEJINGJIGEFANGMIANNEIWANQUANHEMEIGUOKEYIPINGQIPINGZUO。”

  XIANGSONGZUO:“MEIGUODEZHENGZHIJIA,MEIGUODEXUEZHEYOUHENDAYIBUFENTAMENSHIBUYUANYIOUYUANDANSHENGDE。”

中国证券网  ZHANGMING:“TASHIZHENZHENGYISHIDAOOUYUANSHIYIZHONGWEIXIE,SHIYIZHONGTACONGLAIMEIYOUGANSHOUDAOGUODEWEIXIE。”

中国证券网  RUGUOSHUO20SHIJI30NIANDAI,LUOSIFUZONGTONGGENGDUOSHIBAMEIYUANBAQUANKANZUOLEYIGEJINGJIQIANGGUODEFUHAO,NEIMEXIANRAN,JINGGUOJISHINIANDECHENFU,YIGEBAQUANHUOBISUONENGDAILAIDEHAOCHU,YIJINGBEICISHIMEIGUODEZHENGZHIJIAMENLERANYUXIONG。

中国证券网  ZHANGMING:“HUOBIKEYISHUOSHIYIGEJINGJITIDEXUEYE,NEIMEJIUSHISHUOGEGEGUOJIADEHUOBINENGGOUZAIQUANQIUHUOBIDETIXIZHONGJUYUYIZHONGSHENMEDIWEI?NEIMEJIUYUZHEIGEGUOJIAJINGJISHILIDEZHANGLUOYOUGUANXI,ERQIETAFANGUOLAIYENENGGOUTUIDONGZHEIGEGUOJIADEJINGJIFAZHAN,SUOYIZAIBUTONGDESHIQI,WOMENKEYIKANDAOGEGUODOUZAIZHENGDUOGUOJIHUOBITIXIDEZHUDAOQUAN,ZHEIYOUXINGCHENGLEYIGEHUOBILINGYUDEZHENGZHI,DANGRANDANGZHEIZHONGHUOBIDEZHENGDOUSHIYIYIZHONGGENGJIAJULIEDEFANGSHIBAOFACHULAIDESHIHOU,NEIMEZHEIJIUSHIYIZHANZHENGDEXINGSHILAIBAOFACHULAI。”

  DUIYUOUYUANYIJUNTUQIDEZHEIGEDUISHOU,MEIGUODEZHONGSHICHENGDUYIKAISHIJIUBEITIGAODAOLEZHANLVEGAODU。

中国证券网  DINGYIFAN:“WEISHENMEMEIGUOHUIZAI2003NIANTURANKAISHIDAYILAKE,JIUSHIDANGSHISADAMUXUANBU,TADANGSHIJIUMASHANGYAOBAYILAKEDESHIYOUJIJIAHUOBIZHUANHUANCHENGOUYUAN,SUOYISHUODANGSHISHUOMEIGUOCHUBINGYILAKEKENENGYOUZHEIGEYUANYINGUANXI,NEIMEHOULAISUIZHEYILANGXUANBUBATADESHIYOUDEJIAOYIHUOBIGAIWEIOUYUANZHIHOU,WOMENKANDAOMEIGUODUIYILANGDETAIDUYEMINGXIANDEQUYUQIANGYING。”

  MEIGUOSIHAOBUYANSHIWEIHUMEIYUANBAQUANDIWEIDEYITU,WEIRAOHUOBIDIWEIDEMINGZHENGANDOU,YECONGWEITINGZHIGUO。

  ZHANGMING:“DANGSHIZAI2001NIANZHI2003NIANZHEIGEJIEDUAN,OUYUANSHIDUIMEIYUANSHIBUDUANDESHENGZHI,SUOYISHUODAOLE2003NIANMEIGUOJUEDEYOUBIYAOQIAODAQIAODAOUYUAN,SUOYIDANGSHIJIULIYONGKESUOWOCHONGTUBAOFAZHIHOU,NEIMEJIUBAOUZHOUDEJUSHIJIJIAOLUANLE,TEBIESHIZHONGDONGDEJUSHI,NEIMEYINGXIANGLEDANGSHIOUYUANQUJINYIBUDONGKUODEBUFA,NEICIZHANZHENGBAOFAZHIHOU,NEIMEOUYUANDUIMEIYUANDEHUILVJIUKAISHIZOUXIAPOLULE。”

  MEIYUANZAICISHUAIBAI,MEIYUANBAQUANRUHEYANBIAN?GUOJIHUOBIGEJUZOUXIANGHEFANG?

  JINGUAN200NIANFASHENGDECIDAIWEIJI,ZUIZHONGJIANGMEIGUODAIJINLEJINGJIWEIJIDENITAN,DANSHISHIXUEJIAMENHAISHIXIANGXIN,MEIGUODESHUAITUISHIJISHANGCONG2001NIANJIUKAISHILE,20SHIJI90NIANDAIYILAI,MEIGUOJINGJIDEYIXUNMENGFAZHAN,DANSHICHIXUDEFANRONGYELIUXIALEHOUYIZHENG,BIAOXIANZAIQIYETOUZIGUODU,GUSHI、LOUSHIPAOMO,ZHANSHIPINFAN,ZHAIWUPENGZHANGDENGFANGMIAN,ZHEIXIEDOUWEIMEIGUOHOULAIDESHUAITUIMAIXIALEFUBI。

  DINGYIFAN:“YINWEIMEIGUOCONGSHANGSHIJI90NIANDAIHOUQICENGJINGZAOGUOLIANGGEDADEPAOMO,YIGEJIUSHISUOWEIXINXIJISHUDEPAOMO,DANGSHIXINXIJISHUDAIDONGXIA,ZHENGGEZAOCHENGLEYIGEHENDADEJISHUPAOMO,RANHOUZHEIGEJISHUPAOMOZAI2000NIAN、2001NIANPOMIELE,RANHOUSUIZHIERQUDAIDESHIFANGDICHANPAOMO,RANHOUFANGDICHANPAOMOZAI2007NIANPOMIELEZHIHOU,JIUJIZHEIXIEWAIGUOTOUZIZHEZAOCHENGLEHENDADESUNSHI,RENMENDUIMEIGUOZICHANDUIMEIGUOTOUZIDEXINXINJIUBUTAIZULE。”

中国证券网  CONG2001NIANYILAI,MEIGUOYOULIANGNIANSHIQULESHIJIEDIYICHUKOUDAGUOHEDIYIDUIWAITOUZIDAGUODEGUIGUAN,BINGQIECONGZUIDAQUANGUOBIANCHENGLEZUIDAZHAIWUGUO。

  DINGYIFAN:“ZHEIYICI,YOUGENYUEZHANFEICHANGXIANGJINDEBEIJING,JIUSHISHUOZHICHENGMEIGUOZHENGFULAIDUIFUZHEIXIEZIJIZHAIWUDEYIXIENENGLIMEIYOU,ERMEIYOUZUIZHUYAODEYUANYINSHIYINWEIZHANZHENGHUALEHENDUOHENDUOQIAN,ER2003NIANMEIGUOFADONGLEFANKONGZHANZHENGYILAI,ZHEIGEKEYISHUOKAIZHIWUDU。”

中国证券网  JINIANLAI,MEIGUOYONGYUFANKONGZHANZHENGDEJUNFEIKAIZHI,YIJINGCHAOGUOLE5WANYIMEIYUAN,CHOUJIZHEIBIJUEKAIZHI,MEIGUORENCAIYONGDERENGRANSHIXIANGGEGUOJIEDAIDEBANFA。

  DINGYIFAN:“ZHEI5WANYIDEKAIZHIDUITALAISHUOFEICHANGFEICHANGDADEYIGEDONGXI,ZHEIMEDADEZHAIWUSHANGNAQUMIBUQIAN,NIKANMEIGUOZHEICI,MEIGUOZHENGFUWEILEJIUSHITAOLUNLEBANTIAN,NONGGE8QIANYIMEIYUANDEJIHUADOUNABUCHULAI,TADOUBUZHIDAOCONGNAQUZAIJIEZHEIMEDUOQIANQU。”

  2008NIAN,YICHANGZUIZHONGWEIJIQUANQIUDEJINRONGHAIXIAODAOLAIDESHIHOU,MEIGUODESIRENZHAIWU、GONGSIZHAIWU、GUOJIAZHAIWUJIAZAIYIQI,YIJINGCHAOGUOLE50WANYIMEIYUAN,ZHEIGESHUZIJIHUDENGYUQUANQIUDESHENGCHANZONGZHI,HUANJUHUASHUO,QUANSHIJIEDERENYIQIZHENGQIANWEIMEIGUORENHAIZHAI,CAINENGGAIBIANMUQIANMEIGUOJUECAIZHENGCHIZIDEQINGKUANG,JINNIAN3YUE,MEILIANCHUZHUXIBONANKESHITULIWANKUANGLAN,PAOCHULE3000YIMEIYUANGOUMAIGUOZHAIDEJIUSHIZHENGCE,DANSHICIJUDUIYUZHONGZHENMEIGUOJINGJIDEZUOYONG,BINGMEIYOUBEIGUANGFANKANHAO。

  DINGYIFAN:“YOUDIANYINZHENZHIKEDEYISI,ZENGJIALIUDONGXINGJIUHAOBIHEJIU,LIUDONGXINGHEYETISHIYIGECI,ZAIYINGYULIMIAN,KENENGHEDIYICITAYOUXIEXINGFENGAN,YOUGECIJIGAN,DANSHINIZHEIGEJIUHEDEYUEDUO,TADEXIAOGUOYUESHAO,TADECIJIGANYUESHAO,DENGDAONIHEZUILE,NIJIUJINGSHENYOUYULE,RANHOUJINGJIDAXIAOTIAO,SUOYISHIYIGECI。”

中国证券网  DAOMUQIAN,MEIGUOZAISHIJIEJINGJIZHONGDEBIZHONGCONGERZHANHOUDEYIBANYISHANGJIANGZHIBUZUSANFENZHIYI,DUIWAIMAOYIZAISHIJIEMAOYIZHONGDEBIZHONGCONG60%YISHANGJIANGZHI16%。MEIYUANDEBAQUANDEDIWEILVZAOZHIYI。ZAIJINGLILECONGQIANGDADAOSHUAITUI,ZAIQIANGDADEYIGELUNHUIZHIHOU,MEIYUANBAQUANDEJUMIANJIANGHUIRUHEYANBIANNI?

  DINGYIFAN:“TAKENDINGHUIYINQIDANGNIANDEWENTI,EXINGTONGHUOPENGZHANGDEWENTI。”

  JIZHE:“NISHIZHIYUEZHANDESHIHOU?”

  DINGYIFAN:“DUI,JIU70NIANDAIDESHIQING,ZHEIGEDONGXI,JIUKENENGWOJUEDEMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANG,70NIANDAIDEYINYINGYOUHUIZHONGLAILE。”

  ZHANGMING:“WOJUEDEYINGGAISHIYIGESHUAILUODEKAISHI,TEBIESHIDANGMEILIANCHUKAISHIZHIJIEGOUMAIMEIGUOGUOZHAIYIHOU,NEIMEJIUGENGSHIYINFALEQUANQIUFANWEINEIDUIZHONGZHANGQINEIMEIYUANDAFUBIANZHIDEFENGXIANHENDANYOU,DANSHIWOMENTONGYANGYEKANDAO,TAYEJIDADEXUERUOLEMEIYUANDEJINGZHENGDUISHOU,OUYUAN、YINGBANG、RIYUANSUOZAIGUODESHILI,SUOYISHUOXIANZAILAISHUOZAIZHEIGEGUOJIHUOBITIXI,ZHUDUOHUOBIDEXUANZEZHONG,MEIYOUYIGEHAODEHUAIDEXUANZE,ERSHIYIGEHUAIYUGENGHUAIDEXUANZE,ZHEIXIANGDUIERYAN,ZHEIGEMEIYUANKENENGHAIBIOUYUANHERIYUANHUIGENGHAOYIXIE,SUOYISHUOZHEIJIUJUEDINGLEMEIYUANDESHUAILUOJIANGSHIYIGEZHANGQIJIANJINHUANMANDEGUOCHENG。”

  LISHILUNHUIDEJINGRENQIAOHECHUXIANZAILE2009NIAN3YUE,DANGNIANKAIENSIFANDUIMEIYUANCHENGWEIGUOJIHUOBI,TICHULESHELICHAOZHUQUANHUOBIDEJIANYI,ZHEIGEJIANYIZAI80NIANHOUDEDAOZHONGXINZHONGSHI,ZHONGGUORENMINYINXINGXINGZHANGZHOUXIAOCHUANZAIYANGXINGWANGZHANLIANFASANPIANWENZHANG,QUANSHIKAIENSILILUN,TIYIZAODAOLEMEIGUOZONGTONGAOBAMADEQIANGLIEFANDUI,DANSHIQUEDEDAOLELAIZIOUMENG,JINZHUANSIGUO,YIJIGUOJIHUOBIJIJINZUZHIDERENKE。

  ZHANGMING:“WEILAIJIUZHIYOULIANGGEXUANZE,DIYISHIYOUQUYUHUOBILAICHONGDANGQUANQIUHUOBI,NEIMEZHEIZHONGGOUXIANGXIAJIUZHUYAOSHIHUOBIQU,JIUSHISHUOOUYUANHUIJIXUZUODA,YAYUANQUHUIHUZHIYUCHU,NEIMEZHEILIANGGEHUOBIQUDECHENGZHANGDOUHUIJIZHANMEIYUANQUDEKONGJIAN,SUOYISHUOWEILAIDAOFAZHANDAOYIDINGJIEDUANDESHIHOU,JIUHUISHIYIGESANZUDINGLIDEJUMIAN,MEIYUAN、OUYUAN、YAYUANSANZUDINGLI,NEIMEZAIWANGHOUFAZHAN,JIUKENENGBUPAICHUYOUYIZHONGQUANQIUXINGDEHUOBIDANSHENG。”

  WUNIANLU:“LISHIDEBIRAN,DANGRANZHEIGEDONGXIYAODOUZHENG,ERQIEZHEIGEDOUZHENGDANGZHONGYEKENENGSHIYOUTUOXIE,ZONGDEQUSHIWOJUEDEMEIGUOBUKENENGYONGYUANZUOWEISHIJIEHUOBIBAQUANDIWEI,NEIMECHIZAOZHEIGEYAOBEISUOWEIWOMENJIAODUOYUANHUAHUOBISUOQUDAI,HUOZHEFEIZHUQUANGUODEHUOBISUOQUDAI。”

中国证券网  BANXIAOSHIGUANCHA:GAOSUNIZHENZHENGDEHUOBIZHANZHENG

中国证券网  ZIDAYOULEDAGUIMODEKUAYANGMAOYI,YOULEQUANQIUJINGJIZHEIGEGAINIANKAISHI,DUISHIJIEHUOBIDEZHENGDUOJIUMEIYOUTINGZHIGUO,CONGHUANGJINBAIYINDAOYINGBANGZAIDAOMEIYUAN,HUOBIZHEIZHIYINZANGZAISHENHOUDESHOUYIZHIZAIGAIXIEZHESHIJIE,ERYUCITONGSHI,TABENSHENYECHENGWEIJILULISHIDEYIGELINGLEIFUHAO。JIUNAMEIYUANDEMINGYUNLAISHUO,TAKEWEICHENGYEZHANZHENG,BAIYEZHANZHENG,ZHEILIDEZHANZHENGBUZHISHIQIANGLINDANYUDEZHANCHANG,HAIBAOKUODADAXIAOXIAOWUSHUKANDEJIANKANBUJIANDESHANGZHAN、MAOYIZHAN、JINRONGZHANSHENZHIHAIYOUYANXULEJISHINIANDELENGZHAN。ZAIZHEIXIEZHANZHENGZHONG,MEIGUOJINGJIZHENGZHIHEJUNSHIDIWEIJIJINGQIFU,MEIYUANYEZOUGUOLEJIFANFENGYU。

  SHISHIJIEXUANZELEMEIYUAN,HAISHISHAOSHUJIGERENSHUXIELEMEIYUANDEJUBEN?KANKANMEIYUANBEIHOUDETUISHOU,XIANRANZHEIGEHUOBIDESHENGSHUAIBUSHIZAIMISHILISHANGLIANGGOUSICHULAIDE。RUGUOYONGYINMOULUNDEYANGUANGKANDAIMEIYUANDEMINGYUNXUANJI,NEIZHISHINIEZAOERBUSHICHUANGZAO,WOMENYEJIUWUFAZHENGQUEJIEDUHUOBIZHANZHENGDEZHENSHIYIYI,WUCONGWEIWEILAISHIJIEJIANLIYIGEGONGPINGGONGZHENGBAORONGYOUXUDEGUOJIJINRONGXINZHIXU。

中国证券网  XIANZAIYUELAIYUEDUODERENZAITANLUNJIANLIYIZHONGCHAOZHUQUANDEGUOJICHUBEIHUOBI,ZHEIYIFANGMIANSHIYINWEIMEIGUOJINGJIDIWEIDEXIAJIANG,DANGENGZHONGYAODELILIANGLAIZIJINGJIQUANQIUHUADETUIDONG。DANGJINGJIBANTUCONGYIJIADUDAZOUXIANGQUNXIONGZHULU,DANGGUOJIMAOYICHUANLIANQIQUANQIUDASHICHANG,DANGGUOJIZIBENJINJINDIANJIYIXIASHUBIAOJIUKEYIKUAYUEGUOJINGDESHIHOU,SHIJIEXUYAOYIZHONGGENGKEKAOGENGANQUANGENGGONGZHENG,BUWEINAGEGUOJIASUOZUOYOUDEXINYONGBAOZHENG。SUIRAN,YANXIASHEIYEWUFAYUGUZHEIYANGDEHUOBIJIUJINGHUIZAINAYITIANDANSHENG,TADAODIHUIJIAOSHENMEMINGZI,DANZHIYAOSHIJIEJINGJIRENGRANCHAOZHEQUANQIUHUADEFANGMIANMAIJIN,TAZONGHUIYOUQUDAIMEIYUANDESHIHOU。SHISHIZAOYINGXIONG,SHISHIYEHUIZAOJIUYIGEXINDESHIJIEHUOBI。


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